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Rare Maps: Jonathan Williams; on the Use of the Thermometer in Discovering Banks, Soundings, etc. 1793 & William Strickland; On the Use of the Thermometer in Navigation, 1802.

$1,700.00

Rare Maps: Jonathan Williams; on the Use of the Thermometer in Discovering Banks, Soundings, etc. 1793 & William Strickland; On the Use of the Thermometer in Navigation, 1802.

$1,700.00
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Book 655-C
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Williams, Jonathan; On the Use of the Thermometer in Discovering Banks, Soundings, etc. Read Nov. 19, 1790. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Extract, Philadelphia, 1793. and Strickland, William; On the Use of the Thermometer in Navigation. York, April, 1798, Read May 16, 1800. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Extract, Philadelphia, 1802. Both are quarto, pp. 82-98, folded map, tables. and pp. 90-103, folded map, tables.

 The two works are complete and bound together in a modern archival folder. The text, maps and tables are clean and bright. In very good condition. Both are rare.

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Two early rare maps showing the Gulf Stream. The first mention of the Gulf Stream currents in the northern regions of the Atlantic are found in George Best's account of Martin Frobisher's voyage of 1577. However the currents were not called the Gulf Stream until Benjamin Franklin used the term "Gulph Stream" in a 1762 letter and his first chart with the Gulf Stream sketched in is dated 1768. This was followed by further charts by Franklin with his last chart printed in 1789 in the "American Museum or Universal Magazine". His 1786 map showing the Gulf Stream appeared in 1786 in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. The maps by Williams and Strickland follow this chart.

Jonathan Williams (1751-1815) important chart appeared in his 1793 paper in  the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. The map shows the Gulf Stream in the area of the U. S. and Canada with parts of Europe and Africa bordering the eastern Atlantic. The transatlantic track of five ships are shown including the 1785 course of the ship carrying Benjamin Franklin. Franklin used thermometers to record sea temperatures to locate the Gulf Stream. Jonathan Williams was Franklin's nephew, accompanied Franklin on the voyage and recorded the temperature data. Williams argued in his paper that ships could establish their position off the coast of America by measuring the sea temperature. Warmer waters would indicate the vessel was in the Gulf Stream.

Williams went on to become the first Superintendent of West Point and was elected to the 14th United States Congress in 1814. His chart is quite rare.

William Strickland (1753–1834), communicated often with Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. H was the son of Sir George Strickland, a Yorkshire agriculturist who introduced new methods of crop rotation and new types of farm machinery. He toured the United States in 1794 and 1795 collecting information on American farming practices that he later used as the basis for a critical assessment in Observations on the Agriculture of the United States of America (London, 1801). It was during his crossing of the Atlantic to and from the United States  that he observed the temperatures of the Gulf Stream. 
Strickland’s 1798 paper “On the Use of the Thermometer in Navigation” contains an important chart with details of the Atlantic Ocean including the Caribbean Islands and coastal features of Eastern North America and Western Europe and Africa. Tracks of vessels are shown and the Gulf Stream is shown in dark shading and terminates off the coast of what is now known as Senegal. Two of the tracks are for the ships on which Strickland recorded the temperatures.  Strickland recorded his data (daily and often hourly) read the results of his observations it before the Philosophical Society in 1800 and his study was published in 1802 along with charts containing temperature date showing the measurements he made and his map.

 

 

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